Welcome to International Workshop on Open Component Ecosystems 

Global warming 

Future climate change effects are expected to include rising sea levels, ocean acidification, regional changes in precipitation, and expansion of deserts in the subtropics. Surface temperature increases are greatest in the Arctic, with the continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost, and sea ice. Predicted regional precipitation effects include more frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, droughts, wildfires, heavy rainfall with floods, and heavy snowfall. Effects directly significant to humans are predicted to include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields, and the abandonment of populated areas due to rising sea levels.

Although the increase of the average near-surface atmospheric temperature is commonly used to track global warming, over 90% of the additional energy stored in the climate system over the last 50 years has accumulated in the oceans. The rest has melted ice and warmed the continents and the atmosphere.
Global warming refers to global averages, with the amount of warming varying by region. Since 1979, global average land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as global average ocean temperatures. This is due to the larger heat capacity of the oceans and because oceans lose more heat by evaporation. Where greenhouse gas emissions occur does not impact the location of warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to diffuse across the planet, although localized black carbon deposits on snow and ice do contribute to Arctic warming.
Another line of evidence for the warming not being attributable to the Sun is the differing temperature changes at different levels in the Earth's atmosphere. According to basic physical principles, the greenhouse effect produces warming of the lower atmosphere (the troposphere), but cooling of the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere).If solar variations were responsible for the observed warming, warming of both the troposphere and the stratosphere would be expected, but that has not been the case.
he response of the climate system to an initial forcing is increased by positive feedbacks and reduced by negative feedbacks. The main negative feedback to global temperature change is radiative cooling to space as infrared radiation, which increases strongly with increasing temperature. The main positive feedbacks are the water vapour feedback, the iceľalbedo feedback, and probably the net effect of clouds. Uncertainty over feedbacks is the major reason why different climate models project different magnitudes of warming for a given amount of emissions.
The physical realism of models is tested by examining their ability to simulate contemporary or past climates. Past models have underestimated the rate of Arctic shrinkage and underestimated the rate of precipitation increase. Sea level rise since 1990 was underestimated in older models, but now agrees well with observations. The 2017 United States-published National Climate Assessment notes that "climate models may still be underestimating or missing relevant feedback processes".
Overall, it is expected that climate change will result in the extinction of many species and reduced diversity of ecosystems. Rising temperatures have been found to push bees to their physiological limits, and could cause the extinction of bee populations. Continued ocean uptake of CO2 may affect the brains and central nervous system of certain fish species, and that this impacts their ability to hear, smell, and evade predators.
Climate change has been linked to an increase in violent conflict by amplifying poverty and economic shocks, which are well-documented drivers of these conflicts. Links have been made between a wide range of violent behaviors including fist fights, violent crimes, civil unrest, or wars. The violent herder-farmer conflicts in Nigeria, Sudan and other countries in the Sahel region have been exacerbated by climate change.
Livelihoods of indigenous peoples of the Arctic have been altered by climate change, and there is emerging evidence of climate change impacts on livelihoods of indigenous peoples in other regions. Polar bears enter inhabited areas more than in the past, owing to climate change. Global warming reduces sea-ice and forces bears to visit land in search of food.
Co-benefits of climate change mitigation may help society and individuals more quickly. For example cycling reduces greenhouse gas emissions while reducing the effects of a sedentary lifestyle at the same time The development and scaling-up of clean technology, such as cement that produces less CO2. is critical to achieve sufficient emission reductions for the Paris agreement goals.







Member of IWOCE RC PBC 2019:


Roberto Di Cosmo

Definitions of different ecosystems

Research Proposal

Software Component Definition

History alternative energy

Enabling  technologies

Renewable energy vs non-renewable energy

Relatively new concepts for alternative energy

Research alternative energy

Disadvantages alternative energy